Codes For Medical Marijuana
ICD-10-CM Codes for Medical Marijuana
Medical marijuana is a plant that contains the chemicals THC and CBD. It can treat many conditions, including pain, nausea, and anxiety.
Primary care patients at KPWA complete a 7-item behavioral health screen that asks about frequency of past-year cannabis use adapted from a validated alcohol screen. Patients can select from a list of implicitly medical or health reasons for use: pain, muscle spasm, seizures, nausea or vomiting, sleep, stress, appetite, and focus/concentration.
Marijuana is a plant that contains chemicals known as cannabinoids. These chemicals have been shown to have medical benefits, including treating nausea caused by chemotherapy and increasing appetite in patients suffering from severe weight loss due to AIDS. Researchers are examining the potential of marijuana for treatment of other conditions, including chronic pain and anxiety.
To assess the impact of marijuana legalization on ED THC immunoassay (THC IA) positivity and cannabis-related ICD-10 codes, we analyzed data from consecutive patient ED visits to BWH and MGH over five time periods of legalization: decriminalized (DEC), before recreational dispensaries were available (MED DISP), after medical dispensaries became available (REC DISP), and transition to ICD-10-CM (ITT). Observed level increases in THC IA positivity and slope changes in the rate of ED discharges involving poisoning by psychodysleptics and adverse effects of them showed no effect of the ICD-10-CM transition.
The ICD-10 code F12.9 is used to identify marijuana-related disorders and conditions. This standardized coding system helps healthcare professionals document and track medical records, which is useful for research, treatment, and statistics. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug that contains THC and CBD. It is used for medicinal purposes, as well as recreational use.
A binary indicator of medical cannabis use was developed from EHR free-text documents using methods described previously. The indicator was based on clinician recommendation or characterization of use to manage symptoms and health conditions, either explicitly (eg, “marijuana for back pain”) or implicitly (“most days”). Indicator rate trends across the ICD-10-CM transition varied by respondent characteristics. The expansion and increased specificity of cannabis codes in ICD-10-CM could improve the ability to conduct surveillance, but trends observed during this transition period should be interpreted with caution. Observed level and slope changes could be due to structural coding differences, coder learning curves, or actual changes in substance use patterns and health events over time.
A person who commits a misdemeanor under this section is disqualified from being a registry identification cardholder. Theft or loss of cannabis is a violation. A medical cannabis establishment must notify the department of any theft or significant loss. The certifying practitioner must provide the department with written notification if the patient has a debilitating medical condition that no longer qualifies the patient for medical use of marijuana. A registered qualifying patient is required to submit information about his or her medical conditions and other factors for a background check before the department issues a registry identification card.
To examine trends in cannabis-related ED and hospital discharges, a segmented regression model was constructed with THC immunoassay results and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes as dependent variables. A limited number of significant increasing and decreasing trends in THC IA positivity and cannabis-related ICD-10 codes were observed across the different legalization periods. Results were stratified by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and income tertiles.
The ICD-10-CM codes for marijuana use are used by healthcare professionals to document and track marijuana use. This information can then be analyzed for purposes such as diagnosis, treatment, research, and statistics. It is important to note that these codes are not used for billing, but rather to categorize the patient’s status and determine reimbursement rates.
EHR data on free-text documentation of medical cannabis use were obtained for 16,684 screenings, and were reviewed manually or by a fully automated, machine-learned Natural Language Processing (NLP) text-classifying system. Indicator trends were determined for each of five major legalization periods at BWH and MGH EDs. Trends in THC IA positivity rate and ICD-10 code positivity per month were determined by logistic regression, with demographic data (gender, age, race, ethnicity, income tertile) as covariates. The NLP system was able to detect a significant increase in THC IA positivity over time, and ICD-10 codes also demonstrated an increased level of positivity. However, these changes may be a result of the new, more specific ICD-10-CM codes or structural coding differences, and should be interpreted with caution.